According to politicsezine, Yemen is located in the Middle East, on the southern tip of the Arabian Peninsula. It shares its borders with Saudi Arabia to the north and Oman to the east and south. To Yemen’s west lies the Red Sea, with the Gulf of Aden to its south.
Saudi Arabia is a large country that occupies much of the Arabian Peninsula. It is bordered by Jordan and Iraq to the north, Kuwait and Qatar to the east, and Bahrain and United Arab Emirates (UAE) to the southeast. The border between Saudi Arabia and Yemen has been a source of tension since 1994 when tensions between North and South Yemen were at their peak. The two countries have since normalized relations but there are still some border disputes that remain unresolved.
The Sultanate of Oman is located in southwestern Asia on the southeastern coast of Arabia. It borders Yemen on its east, Saudi Arabia on its northwest, and UAE on its southwest. Oman has a long history as an independent nation dating back to 1744 when it declared independence from Portugal. The country has maintained strong relations with both Yemen and Saudi Arabia over time, though there have been some conflicts between them in recent years due to territorial disputes in their shared waters along their maritime boundaries.
Government of Yemen
According to programingplease, the Government of Yemen is a unitary presidential constitutional republic. The official language of the country is Modern Standard Arabic and the currency is the Yemeni riyal. The President of Yemen is the head of state and head of government, and also serves as commander-in-chief of the armed forces. The President is elected by direct popular vote for a seven-year term. The Prime Minister serves as a senior advisor to the President and acts as an intermediary between the President and Parliament. The Prime Minister is appointed by the President with approval from Parliament and serves at his or her discretion.
The Parliament of Yemen, or Majlis al-Shura, is composed of 301 members who are elected by universal suffrage for six-year terms. It has both legislative and oversight powers over government activities and can pass laws, ratify treaties, approve budgets, and impeach or remove ministers from office. There are two chambers in Parliament: the House of Representatives (Majlis al-Nuwab) which consists of 301 members elected from all governorates; and the Shura Council (Majlis al-Shura) which consists of 111 members appointed by the president with approval from parliament.
The judiciary system in Yemen consists mainly of traditional Islamic courts known as Sharia Courts which adjudicate personal status matters such as marriage, divorce, child custody, inheritance etc., according to Islamic law. There are also civil courts that adjudicate civil matters such as commercial disputes, torts etc., based on Yemeni civil law codes that are based on Islamic law principles but not exclusively so. At higher levels there are specialized appellate courts such as Supreme Court with jurisdiction over all other lower level courts in Yemen including Sharia Courts.
Recent Heads of Government of Yemen
The current head of government in Yemen is Maeen Abdulmalik Saeed. He was appointed as Prime Minister on February 25, 2020, after the former Prime Minister Ahmed bin Daghr resigned in late 2018. Maeen Abdulmalik Saeed has held several positions in the government since 2011. He served as governor of Taiz Governorate and later as Minister of Public Works and Roads from 2015 to 2017. As Prime Minister, he has been a major proponent of restoring stability to the country through economic reforms and a national dialogue process. He has also called for an end to the civil war that has been ongoing since 2015 between the internationally recognized government and Houthi rebels. In addition to his efforts for peace, he has also implemented measures to improve public services, including health care and education. He has also sought to reduce corruption by increasing transparency in public institutions.
Major Political Parties in Yemen
The two major political parties in Yemen are General People’s Congress (GPC) and Islah Party. The GPC is a secular, center-right party founded in 1982 by former president Ali Abdullah Saleh. It is the largest party in Yemen and has traditionally been the dominant party in Yemeni politics, forming coalition governments with other smaller parties. The GPC has been led since 2011 by Saleh’s nephew, Abdelaziz bin Habtour. Its main focus is on economic development, education and infrastructure projects.
The Islah Party is the second largest political party in Yemen and was founded in 1990. It is a conservative Islamist party that seeks to implement Sharia law throughout the country. It also promotes social justice, economic development and religious tolerance. The current leader of Islah Party is Muhammad al-Yadumi, who was elected as leader after former president Ali Abdullah Saleh stepped down from power in 2011. Islah has traditionally formed coalition governments with other smaller parties such as the Nasserite Unionist People’s Organization or YSP and Al Haq Party.