A Turner tooth is a permanent tooth that is malformed and characterized by defects in the enamel (medical term enamel hypoplasia). The disease is named after the first to describe the phenomenon, the English dentist JG Turner. He called the disease of the teeth Turner’s tooth.
What is a Turner tooth?
The Turner tooth is characterized by damage or defects in the enamel of the teeth. In any case, the disease affects the permanent teeth and not the milk teeth. So-called hypoplasia of the tooth enamel can result in malformations of the teeth and lead to the formation of a Turner tooth. For hemophilia explained, please visit psyknowhow.com.
As a rule, a malformed tooth crown occurs in the typical clinical picture of Turner’s tooth. Both the incisors and the molars (medical term premolars) are usually affected by these deformities. In addition, malformations can also appear at the roots of the teeth, with the incisors and premolars also being affected in most cases.
There are various causes for the development of a Turner tooth, which must be clarified depending on the individual case. In many cases, a Turner tooth forms because the former milk tooth, which was located in the place of the later Turner tooth, had a pus-filled focus at the root of the tooth. This purulent inflammation is responsible for the fact that the permanent tooth has been damaged.
The cause of the abscessed milk tooth is usually damage caused by caries infestation of the tooth. Trauma to the milk tooth can also cause Turner’s tooth to develop. Potential traumatic disorders that can arise in the context of tooth development are, for example, a buckling of the tooth axis and the atrophy of the tooth system.
Subsequent infection leads to malformation of the permanent tooth as the inflammation damages the germ of the tooth. As a result, tooth development is faulty. A Turner tooth occurs in about a quarter of all cases in which pus has formed at the root of milk teeth.
In addition, periodontitis of the corresponding milk tooth can also be responsible for the development of the Turner tooth. It doesn’t matter whether the periodontitis is located at the tip of the tooth or inside. In both cases, the development of a Turner tooth can be promoted.
Due to the inflammatory processes in the affected milk tooth, the tooth germ can be damaged as a result of the associated bone lamella dissolving. The bone lamella surrounds the developing tooth germ, which is indirectly damaged by the pressure resulting from the edema formation . In addition, the tooth germ can also be damaged directly by the process of bone degradation (medical term osteolysis ) and promote the formation of a Turner tooth.
Symptoms, Ailments & Signs
A Turner tooth can cause a variety of symptoms and symptoms, which can vary depending on the location of the affected tooth, the severity of the Turner tooth deformity, and the severity of the disease. As a rule, a Turner tooth can be seen with the naked eye and can therefore be easily recognized either by the affected patient himself or by the treating dentist.
Clinical signs of a Turner tooth show up, for example, in areas that show discoloration. Limited white areas up to brownish, opaque spots can appear on the tooth enamel. Hypoplasia can also occur in combination with tooth defects.
The possible defects can range from enamel defects to malformations in the anatomical crown shape of the tooth. In addition to deformation of the tooth crown and root, enamel defects can also occur, some of which are filled with a cement substance. The affected teeth can be reduced in size and the crowns can be discolored yellowish to brownish.
Diagnosis & course of disease
A Turner tooth should always be diagnosed by a dentist. Despite apparently clear symptoms, self-diagnosis is not appropriate, since the Turner tooth must be differentiated from other potential dental diseases by a specialist. Sometimes symptoms of Turner’s tooth are also found in other diseases.
During the examination, the dentist checks the symptoms in a differential diagnosis in order to rule out other diseases such as amelogenesis imperfecta, dental fluorosis, tetracycline teeth, dilaceration, molar incisor hypomineralization or regional odontodysplasia.
A Turner tooth can cause a variety of problems and complications. Depending on the location of the affected tooth and the severity of the malformation, there may be defects in the enamel or other malformations of the teeth. In severe cases, a Turner tooth causes deformities at the root of the tooth, which can be associated with inflammation and chronic pain.
Further complications depend on any underlying medical conditions. If, for example, amelogenesis imperfecta is the cause, tooth decay and other dental diseases can occur as the disease progresses. Adverse events can also occur when treating a Turner tooth. If a tooth crown is placed, there is a risk of injury to the adjacent gums.
The metals used can release pollutants into the body and thus cause long-term effects such as dental diseases or organ damage. Any surgical procedure carries the risk of injury and infection. After an operation on the tooth, some patients experience temporary sensory disturbances or suffer from phantom pain from the extracted tooth.
Drugs can also cause symptoms if they are overdosed or if the patient has an allergy. This can lead to symptoms of poisoning and symptoms such as headaches and gastrointestinal problems. Damage to the internal organs, especially the kidneys, liver and heart, cannot be ruled out.
When should you go to the doctor?
Turner’s tooth requires treatment by a doctor. Further complications and complaints can only be prevented by correct treatment and, above all, by early detection of the disease, so that the person concerned should consult a doctor as soon as the first symptoms and signs of the disease appear. The earlier the Turner tooth is detected, the better the further course of this disease.
A doctor should be consulted if the person concerned suffers from various malformations or malformations of the teeth. Discolouration can also indicate this disease and should be checked by a doctor. Defects in the tooth enamel itself often indicate the disease, whereby the teeth are often yellow or brown and the aesthetics of the affected person is significantly reduced.
As a rule, the Turner tooth can be treated well by a dentist, so that a dentist should always be consulted first if the symptoms arise.
Treatment & Therapy
Various methods of treatment are available for the treatment of a Turner tooth, which are used depending on the severity of the malformation. In most cases, the deformities of the affected tooth can be corrected with the help of tooth build-ups. In more difficult cases, a crowning of the Turner tooth or even an extraction must be considered.
In the event that the Turner tooth is a molar and does not cause any discomfort to the affected patient, therapeutic measures can be dispensed with. Nevertheless, the Turner tooth should be regularly checked and examined by the dentist to prevent possible complications. If incisors are affected, cosmetic treatment is appropriate. In general, no therapy is required for low-grade enamel hypoplasia.
As a preventive measure to prevent a Turner tooth, timely treatment of the affected milk tooth is possible. In more serious cases, an extraction of the inflamed milk tooth is also appropriate. This can avoid potential tooth germ damage that can cause a Turner tooth.
Follow-up care for a Turner tooth depends on the extent of the hypoplasia (underdevelopment) of the affected tooth and the resulting treatment. Treatment can be dispensed with if the underdeveloped tooth is a symptom-free molar or there are only minor defects in the enamel.
Follow-up care consists of regular check-ups of the affected tooth as part of standard prophylaxis. Incipient complications can be recognized quickly and treatment steps can be initiated. Larger deformities of a Turner tooth are treated by building up the tooth with composite or a crown. In the immediate aftercare, the treated person should take into account the curing time of the composite of up to two days.
A short-term protection of the teeth by avoiding hard foods is advisable. During the chewing process, the person being treated should check whether the composite filling or the crown is correctly fitted. If a replica tooth crown seems too high and interferes with biting with the opposite tooth, the dentist can make a correction.
This prevents the risk of temporomandibular joint pain due to incorrect loading. Regular dental check-ups after this treatment are also important. When it comes to oral hygiene, the person being treated should pay particular attention to the crowned tooth. Crown edges are a risk zone for tooth decay and should be carefully cleaned, including in the spaces between the teeth, using dental floss or interdental brushes.
You can do that yourself
If Turner teeth have been corrected with tooth build-ups, the patient should refrain from eating and drinking for a few hours. In particular, hot, cold, spicy, sour or sticky foods should be avoided. If eaten, it should be chewed with the teeth opposite the filling. Mineral water and a light diet may be consumed after the procedure.
A composite filling will set within 24 to 48 hours. During this period, the teeth should be protected overall. In addition, the affected areas must be checked for abnormalities. If bumps appear on the filling, a visit to the dentist is recommended. Corresponding places can be felt with the tongue or by gently biting. If there are other problems such as discoloration or a strong sensitivity to the restored tooth appearance, a visit to the dentist is also recommended.
The teeth should be cared for particularly carefully after the insertion of a composite filling. At best, coffee, tea and wine should be avoided completely, as these can cause discoloration of the fillings. We recommend fluoride gels or pastes, which protect the teeth and strengthen the enamel. If these measures are followed, the Turner tooth should not cause any further problems.