According to microedu, Vietnam is a parliamentary republic. The Constitution of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, adopted on April 15, 1992, is the fourth one after World War II (1946, 1959, 1980).
Currently, there are 57 provinces in Vietnam, four cities of central subordination (million people): Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City (St. 5), Haiphong (1.7) and Da Nang (0.7).
The political system of Vietnam is defined in the preamble of the Constitution: “The Party leads, the people rule, the State governs.” The Communist Party of Vietnam is the only party that occupies a leading position in the country’s political system.
Relying on the authority of the ruling party since 1945, the leadership of the CPV at the VI Congress in 1986 initiated radical changes, proclaiming the course of the policy of “renovation”. At present, the CPV has St. 2 million people The General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Vietnam, Nong Duc Man, was elected at the IX Congress of the Communist Party of Vietnam in April 2001.
The principle of state administration is revealed in the Constitution: “All power in the country belongs to the people, who exercise it through the National Assembly, People’s Councils of all levels, elected by the people and bearing responsibility to them.”
The National Assembly (NA) is a unicameral supreme representative body that exercises legislative power, decides the main issues of domestic and foreign policy of the state, exercises supreme control over the activities of all state bodies. Elects from among the deputies the Standing Committee, the president and vice president, the Council of Ministers (government), the chairman of the Supreme People’s Court, the Prosecutor General of the Supreme People’s Procuratorate. Consists of 498 deputies elected from administrative-territorial units and from socio-political organizations and unions. Elected for 5 years, its sessions are held 2 times a year. Over 90% of the NA deputies are members of the CPV.
All citizens of the Vietnam who have reached the age of 18 have the right to vote, and from the age of 21 – to be elected to the National Assembly. At the 1st session of the 11th convocation (July 2002), Nguyen Van Anh was elected the NA Speaker.
The NA Standing Committee (SC SC) is a permanent body between sessions of the National Assembly.
The President of the SRV is the head of state and represents the SRV in the international arena. He is elected by the National Assembly for 5 years from among the deputies, is responsible and accountable to the National Assembly. Promulgates legislative acts and interprets them, proposes to the National Assembly the candidates for Vice President, Prime Minister, Chairman of the Supreme People’s Court and Prosecutor General. In accordance with the decision of the National Assembly or the Steering Committee, the National Assembly declares martial law, general or partial mobilization, etc. The President exercises overall command of the Armed Forces and heads the National Defense and Security Council. The President of Vietnam, Tran Duc Luong, was elected to this post in September 1997 and re-elected in July 2002.
The Council of Ministers is the government of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, the highest executive and administrative body of state power. It is accountable to the National Assembly, and in the intervals between sessions – to the Standing Committee of the National Assembly and the President of the Vietnam. The government consists of 20 ministries and 6 state institutions with the status of ministries. The term of office of the head of government is 5 years. Chairman of the Council of Ministers of Vietnam – Fan Van Khai – elected in September 1997, re-elected in July 2002.
The local government system corresponds to the administrative division of the country. Each administrative unit has a body of power elected by the local population – the People’s Council. Term of Office of the People’s Councils of Provinces, Cities
central subordination and equivalent administrative units – 4 years. The term of office of other councils is 2 years. The People’s Committees are the executive organs of the People’s Councils and the organs of local administrative power.
In general, the political system can be described as a party-state system. All legislative, executive and judicial bodies function under the direction of the CPV.
The Fatherland Front of Vietnam (established in 1977) unites all social and political organizations of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, as well as associations of Vietnamese living abroad. It includes: the CPV, the Federation of Trade Unions, the Union of Communist Youth of Ho Chi Minh, the Women’s Federation of Vietnam, etc.
The main task of Vietnam’s foreign policy has been proclaimed as the creation of favorable external conditions for socio-economic development and the implementation of a course towards a transition to a market economy. It is built on the principles of independence, dosed openness, involvement in the activities of regional structures and multilateral organizations, balanced relations with leading powers and world political and economic centers.
Since 1995, Vietnam has been actively participating in ASEAN activities and has been the author of initiatives that have received the support of ASEAN members. In particular, he proposed the Asia-Europe Dialogue (ASEM) program, successfully held the ASEAN summit in Hanoi in December 1998, during which the “Hanoi Declaration” and the “Hanoi Plan of Action” were adopted. Vietnam and other ASEAN countries have prepared a “code of conduct” in the South China Sea area, entered into negotiations with China to sign this document.
Vietnamese-Chinese relations were normalized in November 1991. The leadership of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam and the People’s Republic of China are of the opinion that the armed clashes of 1979 should not be repeated under any circumstances. On October 19, 1993, an agreement was concluded on the principles for the settlement of border disputes, of which the most important are: the management of international law, the rejection of the use of force and unilateral actions. In accordance with the agreement, an agreement was signed in December 1999 on the demarcation of the land border. In December 2000, the countries concluded an Agreement on the delimitation of the boundary in the Gulf of Tonkin and on fisheries.
Vietnamese-American relations are becoming ever more intense. Vietnam regards the active participation of the United States in regional affairs as a positive factor, which is a reflection of the balance of power that has developed in the Asia-Pacific region. In July 2000, a trade and economic agreement was signed with the United States (ratified in late 2001), providing for Vietnam’s most favored nation treatment.
In September 2000, the Prime Minister of Vietnam, Phan Van Khai, made an official visit to the Russian Federation. A package of agreements was signed on the payment by Vietnam of Russia of a debt in the amount of $1.7 billion over 23 years on the principles of the Paris Club of creditors. An important event in Vietnamese-Russian relations was the visit of Russian President V.V. Putin in March 2001. The heads of state signed the Declaration on strategic partnership between the SRV and the Russian Federation.
The emphasis in the construction of the modern Armed Forces of Vietnam is on the creation of small, well-equipped and trained regular forces, a large strategic reserve and a contingent of paramilitary formations. The share of military spending in GDP fell from 17% in 1990 to about 6% in 2002. In absolute terms, military spending fell from $2.5 billion in 1990 to $1.8 billion in 2001. Since 1985, the policy reduction in the overall size of the army. In 1985, it numbered 1260 thousand people, in 2001 – 484 thousand people. (Ground troops 412 thousand, air force 30 thousand, air defense 15 thousand, navy 42 thousand). The number of the strategic reserve (people’s self-defense forces and people’s militia, coast guard) is estimated at 4-5 million people.
The SRV has had diplomatic relations with the Russian Federation since 1991 (established with the USSR in 1950).