Slovenia History

By | November 9, 2021

In ancient times the present territory of Slovenia was encompassed by the Urnfield Culture, later in the Iron Age the Hallstatt Culture developed in the region. In the second century BC, historical sources record the existence of the Kingdom of Noricum in the Eastern Alps. This Kingdom maintained friendly relations with the Romans, to whom they sold iron. This iron was, in fact, the key of the Romans to produce effective weapons, necessary in their wars against the Celts.

In the year 16 before Christ Noricum is associated with the Roman Empire where it preserved its autonomy in the terms of the “ius gentium”. This law allowed Noricum to preserve its own social organization until the fall of the Roman Empire. However the Roman culture and Romanization spread in Noricum. The most important Roman cities in the area were: Celeia (now Celje), Emona (Ljubljana), Nauportus (Vrhnika) and Poetovio (Ptuj). The Slovenian territory was divided between the Roman provinces of Dalmatia, Italy, Noricum and Pannonia.

In the 4th century, Noricum was divided into two Roman provinces, Noricum Ripense and Noricum Mediterraneum, the latter also called Interriore Noricum. While the first of these provinces was invaded by Germanic tribes at the Fall of the Roman Empire, the second was able to maintain its social structure and, after the occupation of the Ostrogoths, declared its own independence. they settled in this area around the 6th century. However, there are others who maintain that they descend from the indigenous peoples of the Eastern Alps. In the year 595 the appointment, by the Lombard historian Paulus Diáconus, of the first Slavic and Slovenian stable state as “Sclaborum Province” is recorded. would know as Carantania.

In 623, the Slavs were united in Alliance under a king named Samo, also known in historical sources as Marca Vinedorum, which included the territories of Carantania. In 658, after Samo’s death, the Slavic Alliance disintegrated, but Carantania survived and maintained its independence.

In 745, Carantania, which until then was a pagan nation, was seriously threatened militarily by the Avars of neighboring Pannonia. That is why Duke Borut requested military aid from the friendly Bavarians, who were already Christianized. The Bavarians belonged to the political dominance of the King of the Franks, who was the protector of Christianity in Europe. The King of the Franks gave Bavaria permission to help the pagan Carantania, but only on the condition that the latter accept Christianity. Duke Borut accepted the condition and with the help of the Bavarians Carantania defeated the Avars definitively. Thus it was that Duke Borut sent his son Gorazd and his nephew Hotimir to be educated in the Christian faith in Bavaria. In the decades following the defeat of the Avars the Bishop of Salzburg, Saint Virgil, He sent to Carantania a series of Irish monks, Saint Modesto standing out as an apostle of the Carantanians. After the death of Saint Modesto there was a brief pagan restoration because the Treaty by which Carantania had agreed to assume Christianity was violated. Thus it was that the Bavarian army entered the country and suppressed the pagan government. Because of this, distrust of him grew among the pagan people. Christianity.

Thanks to the work of Duke Domitian (Domicijan), the conversion to Christianity was complete. Finally, in the time of Charlemagne, in the year 802 Duke Domitian passed away; then he would be recognized as a saint. Towards the year 828 the Duchy of Carantania occupied the current territory of Austria and Slovenia. Carantania joined the kingdom of the Franks with its own law (Custom Sclavorum) and preserved the proclamation of its knez (prince) in Slovenian language until 1414 on the Prince’s Stone (knezji kamen). Until 1651 the lord’s naming ceremony took place at the Duke’s Throne (vojvodski stol) and until 1728 at the Klagenfurt county mansion (Celovec). The coronation ritual of the Carinthian ruler is described in Jean Bodin’s book “Six livres de la République”. Around the year 1000 the Freising manuscripts were written, representing the first document written in Slovenian and the first in the Slavic dialect in Latin script. During the fourteenth century, most of the regions of Slovenia passed into the ownership of the Habsburgs whose lands would later form the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the Slovenes fully or mostly inhabited the provinces of Carniola, Gorizia and Gradisca, and parts of the provinces of Istria and Styria.

Installation of the Duke of Carantania

In 1848, according to topschoolsintheusa, a strong program for a united Slovenia emerged as part of the “Spring of Nations” movement within Austria-Hungary. During the Napoleonic Wars, the Illyrian Provinces were established with their capital in the Slovenian city of Ljubljana. With the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy in 1918, Slovenians joined the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, which changed its name in 1929 to the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. After the reestablishment of Yugoslavia at the end of World War II, Slovenia became part of the Federal Socialist Republic of Yugoslavia, officially declared on November 29, 1945. Present-day Slovenia was formed on June 25, 1991 due to its independence. from Yugoslavia. To make your independence effective, Slovenia engaged the federal armed forces of Yugoslavia in a brief armed conflict called the Ten Day War, also commonly known as the “Slovenian War” (Slovenian: Slovenska osamosvojitvena vojna, “Slovenian War of Independence”; or desetdnevna vojna, ” Ten Day War “). Slovenia joined the NATO on 29 March as as 2004 and the European Union on 1 as maypole as 2004.

Slovenia History