In medicine, a so-called sinus vein thrombosis, or sinus thrombosis for short, refers to a thrombotic occlusion of a cerebral sinus. Sinus vein thrombosis usually affects women.
What is sinus vein thrombosis?
Blood clots collect in the veins of the brain during sinus vein thrombosis. However, occlusion of the large collecting veins does not always result in clinical symptoms. Basically, the venous system in the brain has a particularly high degree of flexibility. For mns definitions, please visit definitionexplorer.com.
However, a sinus vein thrombosis often leads to a so-called rush of blood. In the context of venous congestion, the blood collects more in the area of the brain. If the blood volume is not regulated, those affected can possibly have a stroke.
The causes of sinus vein thrombosis are relatively diverse. Infectious causes are primarily responsible for the occurrence of sinus vein thrombosis. The occurrence of sinus vein thrombosis is particularly often promoted by the so-called staphylococci.
As a result of an infection in the facial area, the toxin of the bacterium can spread unhindered. Sinus vein thrombosis often occurs as a late consequence of a so-called sinusitis. Inflammation of the paranasal sinuses is considered to be one of the most common causes of sinus vein thrombosis.
In addition to the infectious causes, however, the generalized causes are primarily responsible for the occurrence of sinus vein thrombosis. The occurrence of a thrombotic occlusion in the area of the brain is promoted, among other things, by a measles disease.
Symptoms, Ailments & Signs
Physicians are still struggling to diagnose sinus vein thrombosis unequivocally. This is because many initial symptoms point to other diseases. A basic distinction is made between non-inflammatory and inflammatory sinus vein thrombosis.
If there is a high fever, this indicates an inflammatory manifestation. The signs worsen over time. Ultimately, death can result from a stroke. In the beginning, severe headaches burden everyday life for several days. What those affected usually interpret as migraines turns out to be sinus vein thrombosis in combination with other symptoms.
Visual disturbances and unusual pain in the nose and eyes also occur. After this first phase, the signs change. Pain in the entire head and neck area is now possible. Seizures and epileptic deficits occur. Patients vomit or feel nauseous. In addition, psychological effects are now becoming apparent.
Close and acquaintances notice disturbances of consciousness and personality changes. Sinus vein thrombosis reaches its peak when paralysis occurs. The eyesight is so weakened that it comes to a standstill. If further treatment is excluded, intracranial pressure develops in the head. Death will follow if those affected do not seek immediate medical attention.
Diagnosis & History
Despite medical advances, sinus vein thrombosis is relatively difficult to diagnose. The symptoms often point to another disease during an initial examination.
Even the determination of the so-called D-dimer level in the blood can never completely confirm an initial suspicion of sinus vein thrombosis. For this reason, the so-called sectional image diagnostics is used as an imaging method. So-called infarction zones and bleeding can be clearly detected both in computed tomography and in magnetic resonance imaging. Often, however, the administration of a so-called contrast medium is of essential importance for a better representation of the individual areas.
However, a sinus vein thrombosis cannot only be diagnosed by the individual imaging methods. So-called laboratory diagnostics is often used as an alternative method. Among other things, medical evidence of the so-called C-reactive protein is enjoying growing popularity.
This protein form is a special plasma protein that is formed in the liver. C-reactive protein is often a clear indication of sinus vein thrombosis. In the context of laboratory diagnostics, however, the so-called blood sedimentation rate is also often determined.
In the worst case, sinus vein thrombosis can lead to the death of the patient. However, death can be avoided by paying attention to the warning signs of thrombosis and thus avoiding the further complications. The patients primarily suffer from very severe pain in the neck and head area.
This pain often spreads to other parts of the body. It can also lead to convulsions or an epileptic seizure in the patient. Those affected also suffer from paralysis, which, however, is only temporary and disappears again after a short time. Visual disturbances or disturbances of consciousness can also become noticeable as unpleasant side effects of sinus vein thrombosis and have a very negative effect on the patient’s quality of life.
If you lose consciousness, you may be injured if you fall. Furthermore, the disease often leads to fever and thus to general tiredness and exhaustion. Treatment of sinus vein thrombosis is carried out with the help of drugs.
There are no complications. However, those affected by this disease are dependent on regular examinations in order to avoid further complications. It cannot generally be predicted whether this will lead to a reduced life expectancy.
When should you go to the doctor?
Sinus vein thrombosis always requires medical treatment. In the worst case, this disease can lead to the death of the person affected if the disease is not treated in time. This can also lead to significant discomfort in the patient’s everyday life, so that sinus vein thrombosis should be treated at the first sign. A doctor should be consulted for this disease if the affected person suffers from a strong fever. This leads to various heart problems, whereby those affected are usually tired and can no longer concentrate.
Visual disturbances or various spasms can also indicate sinus vein thrombosis and should be examined by a doctor if they occur without any particular reason and do not go away on their own. Furthermore, severe nausea or severe disturbances of consciousness can indicate sinus vein thrombosis. If these symptoms occur, a doctor must be consulted immediately. The disease is usually treated by a cardiologist. In emergencies or if the symptoms are very severe, you should call an ambulance or go to the hospital.
Treatment & Therapy
If a sinus vein thrombosis has been diagnosed, immediate therapy is essential to avoid any long-term effects. As part of the therapy, the drug heparin is administered to those affected. The intravenous administration of heparin is intended to suppress the effect of individual coagulation factors in the blood.
Until the so-called thromboplastin time has doubled, those affected must be treated with heparin. The thromboplastin time is a special laboratory value that provides information about blood clotting. If blood coagulation meets the set requirements, oral administration of anticoagulants over a period of around 6 months is considered.
Since sinus vein thrombosis is often accompanied by epileptic seizures, another drug is administered in addition to the anticoagulants . Phenytoin is intended to minimize the risk of epileptic seizures. In the context of a reliable therapy, however, not only the treatment of sinus vein thrombosis is in the foreground. The cause of a thrombotic occlusion in the brain area should always be treated. If the sinus vein thrombosis is due to an infection, those affected must take a fast-acting antibiotic.
A full recovery can be achieved in approximately 85 percent of all cases. Despite medical advances, sinus vein thrombosis cannot be actively prevented. However, if clinical symptoms occur, a doctor should be consulted immediately. This is the only way to prevent possible late effects.
In the further course of treatment with anticoagulants (medicines to inhibit blood clotting – for example heparin or marcumar), around 57 percent of people suffering from sinus vein thrombosis (SVT) are symptom-free after 6 months. This is confirmed by a study by the “International workshop on Cerebral Venous Thrombosis”. In the group of people reported as symptom-free, the aftercare aims to prevent another SVT. This may require drug treatment with a vitamin K antagonist for three to twelve months.
In addition, it is recommended by doctors to carry out annual screening for coagulation disorders. In addition, epilepsy occurs in ten percent of the diseases in the long-term course. Epilepsy can be treated with medication for life. Electroencephalography (EEG) should be performed regularly (at least once a year) during follow-up care. In addition, the drug level must be determined by taking a blood sample.
Whether the epilepsy persists can only be shown by stopping the medication. The acute mortality rate from SVT is about eight percent. If the patient dies, the subject of aftercare is therapy for the bereaved, with a focus on coping with grief. In around four percent of those affected, SVT manifests itself permanently.
As a long-term treatment, the intake of drugs for blood clotting is provided. In addition to the annual screening for coagulation disorders, an annual imaging examination (computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging) is also recommended as a follow-up examination.
You can do that yourself
In everyday life, care must be taken to ensure that the blood circulation is not affected in any way by external influences or by adopting an unhealthy posture. Regular balancing movements and avoiding rigid postures are particularly important. Stagnation of the blood should be avoided under all circumstances.
If long distances are covered, care must be taken to ensure that there is sufficient freedom of movement. Wearing thrombosis stockingsas well as clothing that does not contribute to any disturbances in the blood flow is highly recommended in everyday life. In particular, wearing tight belts or other objects that constrict parts of the body should be avoided. Overall, they do not have a good effect on the organism. Sporting activities support the blood circulation in its activity. It is often sufficient to carry out small movements of individual parts of the body during the course of the day in order to stimulate blood circulation. As soon as sensory disturbances occur or a tingling sensation is felt on the skin, the posture should be changed and light exercises should be carried out.
In addition, the blood system can be positively supported by a targeted intake of certain foods. Blood production is stimulated with foods such as pomegranates, nuts or legumes. In addition, caffeinated foods or hot spices can increase blood pressure. Therefore, those affected can contribute to improving their health in everyday life through their diet.