Peruvian art, the art in what is now Peru.
After the art of Peru for a long time BC. a. had been under Spanish influence, a specifically Peruvian art slowly began to develop in the 19th century.
Pre-modern and early modern: On the threshold between the colonial era and the republic founded in 1921 stands the self-taught José Gil de Castro y Morales (* around 1790, † around 1850), known as El Mulato Gil, who also worked in Chile and especially through his portraits became known by independence fighters. As in other countries in Latin America, artists who initially came from Europe and only temporarily resided in Peru contributed to stimulating the development of art and directing attention to the country itself. They included in the painting u. A. the Austrian Franz Martin Drexel (* 1792, † 1863), the German J. M. Rugendas, the Italian Amadeo Gras (* 1805, † 1871) as well as the French Raimond Auguste Quinsac Monvoisin (* 1790, † 1870), Ernest Charton (* 1815, † 1877) and Léonce Marie François Angrand (* 1808, † 1886), the v. a. Genre scenes and landscapes depicted. Among the most important Peruvian painters were the self-taught Pancho Fierro (* 1810, † 1879) with drawings and murals from everyday life that were partly close to caricatures and Francisco Laso (* 1823, † 1869), the v. a. emerged with dignified portraits of simple people (e.g. “La lavandera”, “The Washerwoman”, around 1858; Lima, Museo de Arte). The genre of the romantic history picture influenced by Europe was developed with depictions of events from the Inca world and the time of the Conquista by Ignacio Merino Muñoz (* 1817, † 1876), Luis Montero (* 1826, † 1868) and Francisco Masías (* 1838, † 1894) represented in America and Europe. Are known inter alia. “Colón ante los sabios de Salamanca” (“Columbus before the Elders of Salamanca”, 1863; Municipalidad de Lima Metropolitana) by Muñoz and “Los funerales de Atahualpa” (“The burial of Atahualpa”, 1867; Lima, Museo de Arte) from Montero. The Spanish painter M. Fortuny Marsal was a role model for artists like Daniel Hernández (* 1856, † 1932), 1919 founding director of the Art School in Lima, and Teófilo Castillo (* 1857, † 1922), who described social life and historical events in salon style, during Carlos Baca -Flor (* 1867, † 1941) v. a. dedicated to the portrait. Enrique Domingo Barreda (* 1879, † 1944) painted landscapes inspired by impressionism.
In the 19th century, sculpture played a subordinate role, influenced by Italy and France. The work of the indigenous sculptor Luis Medina as well as the neoclassical monuments in Lima for S. Bolívar (1859) by Adamo Tadolini (* 1788, † 1869) and for C. Columbus (1860) by Salvatore Revelli (* 1816, † 1859) should be emphasized .. Monument tasks also determined the early 20th century, among other things. the work of the Spanish architect Manuel Piqueras Cotolí (* 1886, † 1937). In addition, David Lozano (* 1936), Luis Felipe Agurto (* 1898, † 1967) and the Spaniard appeared in Lima Victorio Macho Rosado (* 1887, † 1966) with monuments to distinguished personalities in society. The first modern, symbolist monument (1937) for the aviator Jorge Chávez Dartnell (* 1887, † 1910), a work by the Italian Eugenio Baroni (* 1880, † 1935), and the first abstract monument (1961) for the writer C. Vallejo by the Spaniard J. Oteiza.
In the 1920s and 1930s, indigenism was the mainstream. It was led by José Sabogal Diéguez (* 1888, † 1956), who was influenced by the “costumbrismo” of the Spaniard I. Zuloaga and who succeeded Hernández as director of the Lima Art School from 1931–43. He created landscapes, portraits and genre scenes, including murals and graphics for the socialist magazine “Amauta” (1926 ff.) Published by J. C. Mariátegui. His circle of students includes the painters Julia Codesido (* 1892, † 1979), José Alfonso Sánchez Urteaga (* 1903, † 1986), known as Camilo Blas, Enrique Camino Brent (* 1906, † 1960), the sculptor Carmen Saco (* 1882, † 1948) and the graphic artist Gamaniel Palomino Albarracín (* 1921, † 1991). Related to her work are the two-dimensional, decorative compositions by Jorge Vinatea Reynoso (* 1900, † 1931), the naive everyday scenes by Mario Urteaga Alvarado (* 1875, † 1957) and the graphic works by Alejandro González Trujillo (* 1900, † 1982), called Apurímac. In the sculpture there are influences of indigenism in the work of Ismael Pozo (* 1905, † 1959) and Agustín Rivera (* 1898, † 1957).
Modern and Contemporary: For innovators of painting was Ricardo Grau (* 1907, † 1970), who studied in Paris, had in 1943 director of the art school in Lima was and v. a. made Fauvism known. He was supported by Carlos Quíspez Asín (* 1900, † 1983), Juan Manuel Ugarte Eléspuru (* 1911, † 2004), Sérvulo Gutiérrez Alarcón (* 1914, † 1961) and Sabino Springuett (* 1914). Also the Austrian émigré and expressionist painter Adolfo Winternitz (* 1906, † 1993), who has lived in Lima since 1939had great influence as a teacher at the art school he founded at the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Perú. According to programingplease, abstract art then became dominant from the 1950s onwards through his student Fernando de Szyszlo Valdelomar (* 1925), who combined it with pre-Columbian elements. This ancestralism movement, which is also effective in other Andean countries, also temporarily attracted Jorge Eduardo Eielson (* 1924, † 2006), Miguel Ángel Cuadros (* 1928, † 1995), José Milner Cajahuaringa (* 1932), Enrique Galdos Rivas (* 1933) in Peru) and Gastón Gerraud (* 1935) under their spell. The Grupo Arte Nuevo with Luis Arías (* 1932) tended towards geometric abstraction, Teresa Burga (* 1939) and José Tang (* 1941) as well as the painter Martha Vértiz (* 1941). The works of Hermann Braun-Vega (* 1933) and Gerardo Chávez (* 1937), both of whom live in Paris, as well as by Tilsa Tsuchiya (* 1936, † 1985) and Carlos Revilla (* 1940) are characterized by figurative-surreal imagery the end. Jorge Piqueras (* 1925), Oswaldo Sagástegui (* 1936), José Tola (* 1943) and Ramiro Llona (* 1947) stand between abstraction and figuration. In the present are v. a. neo-expressive and symbolist tendencies widespread, e. B. in the factory of Moico Yaker (* 1949), Mariela Agois (* 1956), Jaime Higa (* 1960) and Eduardo Tokeshi (* 1960), who also makes installations.
In the sculpture modernity found v. a. its expression in the work of Joaquín Roca Rey (* 1923, † 2004), who was influenced by H. Arp and H. Moore. Cristina Gálvez (* 1919, † 1982) used wood and leather in her religious works, Alberto Guzmán (* 1927) designed geometrically shaped sculptures in metal and Fabián Sánchez (* 1935), who like Guzmán lives in Paris, created surreal works from machine parts. Víctor Delfín Ramírez (* 1927), who also designs wall decorations and handicrafts, uses v. a. pre-Columbian traditions. Representatives of critical, multimedia art include Ramiro Llona (* 1947), Carlos Runcie-Tanaka (* 1958), Katy Mora (* 1967) and Fernando Bryce (* 1965), who lives in Germany.