Keloid Scar

By | June 10, 2022

Normally, wounds heal with intact wound healing in such a way that scar tissue remains. However, over time, this area hardly stands out from the healthy area. This is different with a so-called keloid scar, which can represent an aesthetic impairment.

What is a keloid scar?

A keloid is also known in medical jargon as a keloid. In contrast to “healthy” scar tissue, the keloid scar differs in that it has a raised appearance that protrudes above the skin’s surface.¬†For definitions of ntis, please visit

Under these conditions, a keloid scar is visually easy to recognize. In addition, a keloid scar can also cause discomfort under certain conditions.

This is often the case when a keloid scar has developed on an internal organ tissue. The keloid scar, which can harden, causes permanent friction. In addition, keloid scars require additional space and can exert pressure on adjacent organ areas.


The etiology or the causes of the formation of a keloid scar are not yet fully known. It is assumed that the causes are increased growth of so-called keloids, which is triggered by overactivity of the fibroblasts involved in wound healing.

In addition, more factors influence the formation of a keloid scar. These include, for example, cytokines and endogenous substances that promote cell growth, as well as macrophages and the cell structures known as epidermal keratinocytes.

There is likely to be an imbalance between these components, creating more collagen as the basis for the keloid scar. A certain genetic predisposition of the organism can contribute to an increased tendency to keloid scars.

Symptoms, Ailments & Signs

Kelp scars are an external phenomenon that can disfigure those affected. But bulge-like scars can also form as a result of operations inside the body. Both types of scars can cause accompanying symptoms that are undesirable. In the case of bulging scars, there is often a feeling of tension or pressure on vessels and nerves. A keloid scar is red and raised for a long time.

The typical symptoms that can cause keloid scars include itching, feelings of pressure and tension or pain around the wound area. The fresh scar tissue only softens after several months or years. It often gradually takes on a normal coloring. Lip scars caused by burns or surgical interventions can remain sensitive to sunlight or pressure for a long time after they have healed. They can be in constant pain.

Sometimes an internal keloid scar develops during biliary surgery. This puts pressure on a draining or supplying vessel. This can lead to vascular occlusion and colic. The problem is that every further operation leads to new adhesions.

External keloid scars are a cosmetic problem, but also a medical problem because of the accompanying symptoms that occur. Surgical correction is sometimes necessary. The formation of scars in burn and acid victims is particularly problematic. Painful keloid scars often develop here, which require special treatment approaches and many cosmetic surgeries.

Diagnosis & History

A keloid scar is always benign and can be recognized externally by its nature. A keloid scar, which has formed inside the body after an operation, causes corresponding symptoms and can be detected by an X-ray or ultrasound examination.

A keloid scar, which develops after defects caused by burns, acne or vaccinations, is often expressed by persistent itching and even a certain amount of pain. The borders of the keloid scar are not smooth and do not merge evenly with the surrounding intact tissue.

If a keloid scar occurs in a draining or supplying vessel (bile duct), blockages with accompanying colic can occur. Dermatologists can recognize a keloid scar purely visually and can differentiate it even better with a magnifying instrument.


When a keloid scar develops, it is primarily a cosmetic problem for those affected. Complications can occur if there is no way to medically treat the scar. Those affected then often develop an inferiority complex and no longer dare to show their bodies.

If there is no therapeutic support, these psychological problems can develop into full-blown anxiety disorders that have a significant impact on the lives of those affected. A keloid can also cause physical problems. The noticeable skin changes are usually associated with sensitivity to touch.

Many of those affected are sometimes sensitive to the weather – a condition that is associated with recurring pain and has a very negative effect on well-being. The constant itching can cause sufferers to scratch the scar and cause infection. In the worst case, this can lead to blood poisoning.

Most of the time, scratching causes the scar to enlarge. Drug treatment with cortisone can, in rare cases, cause side effects. Major complications are possible with surgery. Surgical measures, for example, carry the risk of injuring the surrounding tissue structures. Wound healing disorders and infections can also occur.

When should you go to the doctor?

An external keloid scar can look very unsightly. It can take a toll on people who experience it. This applies in particular if a keloid scar is in the visible area.

However, keloid scars can also become inflamed or lead to growths. The latter is particularly often the case with postoperative scar growth in the abdomen. Doctors then speak of an adhesion abdomen. Here, another operation would probably produce new scar tissue. Nevertheless, the surgical removal of internal keloid scars can be indicated in the case of severe symptoms. The bulging scars that develop after back operations can trigger feelings of tension. They can press on vessels or nerve cords.

The psychological stress caused by a reddened keloid scar in the field of vision can be considerable. Kelp scars are both cosmetically and medically relevant problems. A visit to the doctor is always indicated when depression or other symptoms occur as a result of a keloid scar. Depending on the situation, the responsible doctors are a psychologist or a cosmetic surgeon. The latter can remove the unsightly keloid scar through an operation. A new scar then develops in the same place, which is less prominent.

In the case of severe burn injuries or after acid attacks, keloid scars are increasingly formed. Interdisciplinary help may be necessary here. Even though elastic face masks can reduce scarring, many cosmetic surgeries are unavoidable.

Treatment & Therapy

A keloid scar can not only be treated but also removed. In this context, it is precisely those scars that are perceived as annoying and disturbing that are localized on clearly visible parts of the body. In addition, with the treatment of the keloid scar, the associated complaints can also be brought under control.

A scalpel does not always have to be used with a keloid scar. A keloid scar lying on the skin surface can also be treated with medication or with creams and ointments. Another version of making a keloid scar “invisible” is the use of so-called cryotechnology. The direct effect of very low temperatures leads to an inhibition of cell growth in the keloid scar. Cortisone injections are also successful in order to reduce the visibility of the keloid scar.

Laser devices are among the highly modern procedures used in dermatology and aesthetic medicine to treat keloid scars. Both fractional and ultra-pulsed carbon dioxide laser treatment are important here. A surgical correction of the keloid scar through a follow-up operation can also be useful.


As part of homeopathic measures, the formation of a keloid scar can be prevented by taking vitamin E. The best prophylaxis against a keloid scar is of course intact and smooth wound healing and professional wound care.

In addition, to prevent a keloid scar, exposure to UV rays should not be excessive on a fresh scar. Applying friction and pressure to a wound that has just healed should also be avoided. By keeping a scar “supple” a new formation of scar tissue in a keloid scar can also be prevented. The use of special scar patches is also recommended against a keloid scar.


Aftercare for a keloid scar focuses on finding appropriate treatment options. Most scars can be treated with creams and ointments, laser therapies such as carbon dioxide laser treatment, or cryotherapy. Surgical removal of the scar is also possible. After the treatment is completed, the dermatologist will examine the affected areas of the skin.

By means of a visual diagnostic examination and a subsequent discussion with the patient, it can be determined whether the result meets expectations. Depending on this, further steps can then be planned. If no further treatment is possible because the keloid scar is already knotted too tightly or is located on a sensitive part of the body, therapeutic advice is often useful for the patient.

Otherwise, the aesthetic blemish can create inferiority complexes and make it difficult for the sufferer to show their body freely. Follow-up care focuses on working with the patient to manage the treatment and follow-up of the keloid scar. It is usually carried out by the responsible dermatologist or family doctor. Depending on how the keloid scar develops, further doctor appointments are sometimes necessary. In other cases, the keloid stagnates and the patient decides against further treatment.

You can do that yourself

A keloid scar is usually only a problem for the patient if it hurts or bothers, but nothing can be done about it medically. If the keloid is inside the body, the options for self-help are limited.

However, external scars that bother the patient can be smoothed out and alleviated with patience and appropriate creams. Various scar creams and oils are available in pharmacies and drugstores. Only the patient can find out what is right for the patient. It is important that he can anoint and gently massage the scar area with the product. Experience has shown that gels are not suitable for this. For the gentle massage the patient should take time twice a day. After the cream has been applied, the tissue can be loosened and moved with the fingertips until it is warm and well supplied with blood. It may take weeks or even months for the scar to soften and supple, but consistent self-treatment can ease the itching and make the tissue pain-free again. At the same time, the patient learns to see the scar as part of his body and to accept it.

If the keloid scars are subjectively cosmetically very disturbing, a psychotherapeutic intervention can help to cope better with them. If the scars are also objectively disfiguring, regular visits to a self-help group will help. The treating physicians can offer appropriate addresses.

Keloid Scar