Hungary Medieval Arts – Northern Hungary

Hungary Medieval Arts - Northern Hungary

Northern Hungary

In the Middle Ages there was no term for the northern area of ​​the Hungary as a whole and only in the Late Middle Ages did the denomination of Hungary superior (Hungarian Felsömagyarország or Felvidék) come into use.

Since this area was not conquered by the Turks after 1541 and belonged seamlessly to the territories of the Habsburgs, since the century. 17th there developed a strong awareness of regional unity. The territory defined here in the northern Hungary is essentially the historical precedent of Slovakia (see) and its art currently constitutes the foundation of Slovak art history, while the areas close to the northeastern border of the od. Hungary could also be attributed to this region. There is no doubt that it, before the conquest of the Hungarians, was inhabited by Slavic lineages, even if the opinions of historians and art historians about the role and expansion of the principality of Great Moravia of the century. 9 ° and its monuments are different in Slovakia and Hungary. The history of the western regions of the Hungary it differs significantly from that of the northern areas, located further to the East, colonized no earlier than the century. 12 ° and characterized by a different pace of development and peculiarities in many respects similar to those of the Hungary The western and southern committees of the region were certainly constituted already in the 10th century. 11 °, while the northern ones were formed thanks to the progressive development of urban centers towards the N and thanks to the colonization process of the Szepes region (od. Spiš); the royal castles also played an important role, for example. the frontier fortifications of Pozsony and Trencsén (od. Trenčín), as well as the castle of Szepes (od. Spišský Hrad), and the ecclesiastical foundations: such as the premostratense one in Znióváralja (od. Kláštor pod Znievom), after 1242; Lelesz (od. Lelese), around 1200; the church of the chapter of Szepeshely (od. Spišská Kapitula), before 1202 The whole region was under the rule of the archbishops of Esztergom, since the western area up to that of Szepes belonged to the archdiocese, while the remaining territory was headed by suffragan bishops of Esztergom; the diocese of Nyitra (od. Nitra), to the NW, undoubtedly dates back to one of the ancient Slavic Christian centers; the north-eastern areas belonged to the bishop of Eger. while the remaining territory was ruled by suffragan bishops of Esztergom; the diocese of Nyitra (od. Nitra), to the NW, undoubtedly dates back to one of the ancient Slavic Christian centers; the north-eastern areas belonged to the bishop of Eger. while the remaining territory was ruled by suffragan bishops of Esztergom; the diocese of Nyitra (od. Nitra), to the NW, undoubtedly dates back to one of the ancient Slavic Christian centers; the north-eastern areas belonged to the bishop of Eger.

Monetation

The Hungarian medieval coinage showed from the beginning, at the time of the first ruler of the kingdom of Hungary, Stephen I (1000 / 1001-1038), similarities with that of the European system, based on money-money. For Hungary 2003, please check computerannals.com.

On the obverse of the first coin minted by this sovereign, a spear with a banner appears and a church on the reverse. Given the importance of Byzantine solids, Stephen I also had gold coins minted which featured the sovereign on the reverse and the Virgin as a crowned figure on the obverse. The coins of Stephen I coined later and those of his descendants show much simpler forms, generally depicting only a cross with equal arms, up to the time of King Solomon (1063-1074), when a process of progressive schematization began which produced images in which a few lines were sufficient to represent the faces. The most difficult moment in the minting of medieval Hungarian coins coincided with the century. 12th, when the size, weight and quality of the medals were considerably reduced; on pieces without any inscriptions only crosses, crescents and geometric designs were represented. Since these were coins that could not satisfy commercial needs, for the payments they were mostly used – in the case of large sums – unbroken silver or Byzantine gold. The Byzantine influence lasted until the end of the century. 12 °, as evidenced by the coins minted during the reign of Béla III (1172-1196), in copper, on which two figures of kings appear (one of which is Béla III himself). Manuel I (1143-1180), the political and commercial relations of the Hungary with Western Europe, on the one hand through Carinthia to cities along the Rhine, from another through Aquileia in the direction of Italy. The money of Friesach (Carinthia) first influenced the Hungarian coinage, then, in the second half of the century. 13th, those of Vienna. On the coins of Andrew II (1205-1235), alongside heraldic and architectural motifs, the figures again appeared, in particularly varied representations only starting from the reign of Béla IV (1235-1270); the enthroned sovereign was mostly depicted, well defined and in forms characterized by a certain dynamism, but also with the falcon or on horseback or hunting, with faces that, at the end of the century, already showed intentions of a portrait type.

With the death of Andrew III the Venetian (1290-1301), the last king of the Arpadi dynasty, the Hungarian Romanesque coinage phase ended. 14th, thanks to the reform introduced by the Angevin king Charles I (1308-1342), sovereign who had managed to give stability to the royal power. Alongside the money also appeared the gold florin and the quattrino, with a larger diameter, on which the Italian influence is evident, characterized by a delicate formal rendering. The particular artistic solution of the sovereign half-length, almost a portrait, appeared on the small coin was also typical of the time. The Italian influence was very short-lived. On the money of Louis I the Great (1342-1382) a mature Gothic style is highlighted; the little money he coined, on which figure S. Ladislao, king of Hungary (1077-1095) enthroned, represents one of the apexes of Hungarian Gothic production in the field of small plastic; the circular closure of the throne with canopy – which interrupts the legend – is bold, but reveals a high level of artistic quality, while the throne appears to be delineated with accuracy, without this implying a displacement of the compositional balance to the detriment of the figure of the sovereign. Also in the gold florins of Louis I there was an important change: the lily of Florence and the figure of St. John the Baptist were replaced by the coat of arms and the figure of St. Ladislao, inaugurating a typology that became traditional. of Louis I underwent a strong process of simplification which manifested itself in the stiffening of the design of the gold florin and in the suspension of the minting of the money. From the time of Sigismund of Luxembourg (1387-1437) to that of King Matthias Corvinus (1458-1490).

Hungary Medieval Arts - Northern Hungary