General information about Albania
The official name is the Republic of Albania (Republika e Shqipёrisё, Republic of Albania). It is located in the western part of the Balkan Peninsula. The area is 28.7 thousand km2, the population is 3.1 million people. (2002). The official language is Albanian. The capital is the city of Tirana (0.7 million people). National holiday – Flag Day on November 28. Monetary unit – lek.
Member of the UN (since 1955), etc.
Geography of Albania
Albania is located between 19° and 21° east longitude and 39° and 43° north latitude. In the meridional direction, the country’s territory stretches for 300-340 km with a maximum width of 150 km. Washed by the Adriatic Sea. The coast abounds in the presence of bays (Drinsky, Lalza, Durres, Vlora) and bays. The Strait of Kerkyra separates Albanian territory from the Greek island of the same name (another name is Corfu), and the Strait of Otranto from Italy. At the entrance to the Vlore Bay, a few kilometers from the coast, there is a small island called Sazani.
Albania borders in the north with Montenegro, in the east – with the Serbian region of Kosovo and Metohija, as well as with Macedonia, in the south – with Greece.
The landscape mostly consists of mountain ranges and plateaus. A narrow flat strip extends only along the sea coast. The highest peaks are Korabi (2764 m) and Ezertsa (2692 m). There are many broad-leaved and oak-beech forests in the mountains.
From the mountain gorges stormy rivers rush to the sea – Drin, Semani, Mati, Vyosa. The Shkumbini River flowing in the central part of the country is characterized by a calmer course. Along the borders are the largest lakes on the Balkan Peninsula – Skadar (in the north), Ohrid and Prespa (in the east). The much smaller Lake Butrint is located entirely on Albanian territory (in the south) at a small distance from the Kerkyra Strait.
Of the available minerals, oil, natural bitumen, chromites, copper and iron-nickel ore are of the greatest importance.
According to Bridgat, the climate is determined by the location of the country in the continental Mediterranean region of the subtropical climate zone. Characterized by unstable rainy weather in late autumn and winter, as well as hot, dry weather in summer (average temperature in July + 24-25 ° C). On the coastal plain, the number of days with an average temperature of St. 10°С exceeds 300. The territory of the country is one of the most abundant rainfall areas in Europe (from 1000 mm per year in the western plains to 2500 mm in the eastern mountainous part). At the same time, there is a sharp seasonal unevenness in precipitation, in the summer only 1/10 of the annual norm falls.
Population of Albania
According to the 1990 census, the population was 3.2 million people. Over the past 10 years, the demographic situation has undergone significant changes. St. 35% of the rural population left their habitats, rushing in search of a better life to cities, mainly large ones (Tirana, Shkodra, Korca, Vlora, Durres, Elbasan). Along with internal migration, mass emigration also took place.
Only according to official data, in the 1990s. more than 600 thousand Albanians were forced to emigrate. Most of them went to neighboring Greece (400,000) and Italy (150,000), where they could count on at least a salary ($700) that was 20 times the average monthly income in their homeland ($35). ). Moreover, 83% of emigrants were young people aged 20-35 years. Albania left 31.5% of its intelligentsia.
According to the 2001 census, instead of the projected 22% growth in the country’s population, a 3% decline was noted.
The ethnic composition of the country’s population was characterized by stable homogeneity, 95% were Albanians, 3% were the Greek national minority, 2% were representatives of other nationalities (mainly Serbs, Montenegrins, Macedonians).